《哈佛商业评论》的一篇文章1讨论 Whatsapp 的成功原因，撇开它所处的互联网行业原因，Wahtsapp 的成功与其他行业的成功路径并无本质差异，都是围绕产品做文章：
Examples such as WhatsApp demonstrate that real-world innovation, in many ways, looks like an assembly line. At one end is a customer pain point or a potential new market. At the other is a product or service that solves the problem or addresses the market in a way nobody has thought of before. In between, people sit down and force themselves to examine the problem from a variety of fresh angles. Sometimes they tap the lab and bring a radical new technology to bear. But much more often they reach for pieces of technology that already exist and assemble them with new (or old) capabilities to produce a solution that turns the pain point into a delighted customer. Think of it as high concept meets whatever is lying around — an unconventional recombination.
Another good example is what’s happened with elevators. The obvious pain point for anybody trying to get to an office on the 49th floor is waiting for the elevator to show up. For years elevator companies have been using electronics to coordinate banks of elevators and make the wait times as short as possible. But only recently have elevator companies found a way to personalize the solution by coordinating sensors in building employees’ access badges with systems that calibrate where each elevator should be to optimize wait times. That, in turn, has allowed the elevator companies to revamp their business models. By tracking a metric, they can sell optimized wait times (elevators as a service) rather than banks of elevators based on price. They are selling performance, not hardware.