人工智能商业内参 012

人工智能的真面目

IBM CEO Ginni Rometty 在《华尔街日报》撰文指出:「人工智能(artificial intelligence)」应该叫「智能增强(intelligence augmentation)」:

The term “artificial intelligence” was coined in 1955 to convey the concept of general intelligence: the notion that all human cognition stems from one or more underlying algorithms, and that by programming computers to think in the same way, we could create autonomous systems modeled on the human brain.

At the same time, other researchers were taking a different approach. Their method—which worked bottom up to find patterns in growing volumes of data—was called IA, short for “intelligence augmentation.” Ironically, the methodology not modeled on the human brain has led to the systems we now describe as cognitive. IA is behind real-world applications such as language processing, machine learning and human-computer interaction. The term “AI” won out in the end, despite being a misnomer.

Rometty 的这个表态与之前微软亚洲研究院院长洪小文的说法有异曲同工之处。从商业的角度出发,当下科技公司对人工智能的热衷,尤其是所谓机器替代人类的各种报道,已经引发公众的担忧,这对人工智能的发展非常不利。


当犯罪分子被人工智能武装起来

当人工智能技术不断发展,我们或许最应该警惕新一轮的社会工程学攻击,来自《纽约时报》的报道:

“I would argue that companies that offer customer support via chatbots are unwittingly making themselves liable to social engineering,” said Brian Krebs, an investigative reporter who publishes at krebsonsecurity.com.

Social engineering, which refers to the practice of manipulating people into performing actions or divulging information, is widely seen as the weakest link in the computer security chain. Cybercriminals already exploit the best qualities in humans — trust and willingness to help others — to steal and spy. The ability to create artificial intelligence avatars that can fool people online will only make the problem worse.

This can already be seen in efforts by state governments and political campaigns who are using chatbot technology widely for political propaganda.

Researchers have coined the term “computational propaganda” to describe the explosion of deceptive social media campaigns on services like Facebook and Twitter.

In a recent research paper, Philip N. Howard, a sociologist at the Oxford Internet Institute, and Bence Kollanyi, a researcher at Corvinus University of Budapest, described how political chatbots had a “small but strategic role” in shaping the online conversation during the run-up to the “Brexit” referendum.


人工智能行业一览图

来自 Venture Scanner 的分类汇总,如下图所示,大致可以对人工智能行业有个基本的轮廓:

IMG_0958


人工智能行业还有哪些投资机会?

投资人眼中的人工智能投资和创业机会,其中谈到了人才领域:

深度学习的再一次兴起起源于学术界,但目前学术界的大牛大部分被挖到巨头公司。之前是学术界的研究领先于工业界,但现在人才、计算资源等条件,巨头已领先于学术界,研究的中心已转移到工业界。

现在来看美国比中国还是领先不少,美国有4大名校:MIT、斯坦福、卡内基梅隆、纽约大学,还有Google、Facebook、MS这些大牛公司,培养了很多人才。在语音识别,图像处理等领域国际很多顶级专家都是华人。国内也有很多专家,行业薪资待遇越来越好,会吸引更多的优秀人才进来。这批人目前可能在百度、腾讯和阿里,将来可能加入创业大军(已经出现)。

中国的优势在于有大量互联网用户,很多的数据,有和各行各业结合紧密的应用,未来美国技术+中国商业模式会引领人工智能的发展。


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