IBM CEO Ginni Rometty 在《华尔街日报》撰文指出：「人工智能（artificial intelligence）」应该叫「智能增强（intelligence augmentation）」：
The term “artificial intelligence” was coined in 1955 to convey the concept of general intelligence: the notion that all human cognition stems from one or more underlying algorithms, and that by programming computers to think in the same way, we could create autonomous systems modeled on the human brain.
At the same time, other researchers were taking a different approach. Their method—which worked bottom up to find patterns in growing volumes of data—was called IA, short for “intelligence augmentation.” Ironically, the methodology not modeled on the human brain has led to the systems we now describe as cognitive. IA is behind real-world applications such as language processing, machine learning and human-computer interaction. The term “AI” won out in the end, despite being a misnomer.
“I would argue that companies that offer customer support via chatbots are unwittingly making themselves liable to social engineering,” said Brian Krebs, an investigative reporter who publishes at krebsonsecurity.com.
Social engineering, which refers to the practice of manipulating people into performing actions or divulging information, is widely seen as the weakest link in the computer security chain. Cybercriminals already exploit the best qualities in humans — trust and willingness to help others — to steal and spy. The ability to create artificial intelligence avatars that can fool people online will only make the problem worse.
This can already be seen in efforts by state governments and political campaigns who are using chatbot technology widely for political propaganda.
Researchers have coined the term “computational propaganda” to describe the explosion of deceptive social media campaigns on services like Facebook and Twitter.
In a recent research paper, Philip N. Howard, a sociologist at the Oxford Internet Institute, and Bence Kollanyi, a researcher at Corvinus University of Budapest, described how political chatbots had a “small but strategic role” in shaping the online conversation during the run-up to the “Brexit” referendum.
来自 Venture Scanner 的分类汇总，如下图所示，大致可以对人工智能行业有个基本的轮廓：